A few words about the italian culture


Italy since antiquities is considered  one of  major cultural centres of Europe.

LITERATURE

 The Italian literature derives from the Latin.

Historians of literature identify the beginning of literary tradition in Italian in the first half of the thirteenth century with the Sicilian School of Frederick II of Swabia King of Sicily and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, although the first literary document is considered the Canticle of Creatures of Saint Francis of Assisi.

The Canticle of the Creatures (Canticus o Laudes Creaturarum)

 According to legend, his drawing dates back to two years before the death of Santo. The Song is a praise to God that unfolds with intensity and force through his works, thus becoming also a hymn to life, a prayer is permeated by a positive vision of nature, as reflected in creation is the image of the Creator: Hence the sense of brotherhood between man and all creation, that much distance from contemptus mundi, the detachment and contempt for the earthly world, marked by sin and suffering.

 Among the great writers Italians, remember Dante Alighieri, Petrarca, Boccaccio,  Alessandro Manzoni, Giacomo Leopardi

Dante Alighieri (Florence, 1265 – Ravenna, September 13 1321) was a poet, writer and Italian politician. It is considered the first and greatest poet of the Italian language and that is called “the great poet”, or “preserved” (or “the prophet).

 

His principal work, Divine Comedy, is the greatest poem of Italian literature and is considered one of the masterpieces of universal literature.

Canto I Inferno

Canto v inferno

Paradiso Canto XXXIII vv. 1-21

 

 

 

 

Francesco PetrarcaF

Francesco Petrarca (Arezzo, July 20, 1304 – Arquà, July 19 1374) was a writer, poet and humanist Italian. The work for which Petrarch is universally known is the Canzoniere. Petrarca, despite consider above all, like all the scholars of his time, an author of Latin, played an essential role in the development of Italian vernacular poetry. The opera of Petrarch, as has been pointed out by critics, supreme fact in itself all the experiences of poetry of Italian origins.

Canzoniere

The Canzoniere is the story, through poetry, the interior life of Petrarch. Most of the rhymes of Canzoniere argument is loving, thirty are subject to moral, religious or political are famous songs Italy and my Spirto gentil in which the concept of homeland is identified with the beauty of native land, free from dreamed fratricidal struggles and the militias mercenary. Among the most famous songs also remind Clear, fresh and sweet waters and across sonetti Solo and thoughtfully. The collection was divided by publishers in two parts: rhymes alive and rhymes in death of Madonna Laura.

Chiare, fresche e dolci acque

Giunto alessandro

Solo e pensoso

Giovanni Boccaccio

 Boccaccio was one of the greatest storytellers Italian and European fourteenth century, an era full of poets: with his Decameron fact becomes known and appreciated at European level, much to influence, for example, also in English literature, with Geoffrey Chaucer . For some scholars  is considered the greatest storyteller at European level and was capable of having a hegemonic role in the European landscape of the XIV century – the Decameron was immediately translated into many European languages.The masterpiece of Boccaccio is the Decameron The book tells of a group of young (seven girls and three boys) that during the plague of 1348, took refuge in the hills near Florence. For two weeks, ” honest brigade ‘lives serenely with various pastimes, particularly telling in turn the novels. Since Friday and Saturday not narrate novels, these arranged in a period of ten days (deca, which means ten and emeron which means days), as stated in the title of greek, is a total of one hundred. The book presents a wide variety of themes, environments, characters and tone; can be identified as central themes of fortune, inventions, courtesy, love. The novels are included, as has been said, in a “frame” narrative, which constitute important steps the Foreword and Introduction to the first day, with the narrative of the plague, and the conclusion that the author provides the answer to the many criticism that already circulating about his work. Its originality, however, had followers in the history of literature, including the European Union, given Geoffrey Chaucer, who wrote the Canterbury Tales

Alessandro Manzoni

Francesco Alessandro Manzoni (Milan, March 7, 1785 – Milan, May 22 1873) was an Italian writer and poet. It is considered one of the greatest Italian poets and novelists of all time, mainly for his novel The Betrothed, his most well known and still a cornerstone of Italian literature. It can be said that Manzoni is the Italian writer par excellence (as Dante is the Italian poet par excellence) and The Betrothed is the novel for excellence of Italian literature.

The Pentecoste

 

I promessi sposi

Fra Cristoforo e Don Rodrigo: “Verrà un giorno…!”

Renzo and Doct. Azzeccacarbugli

 Giacomo Leopardi
was a poet, philosopher, writer and philologist Italian. It is considered the greatest poet of Romanticism Italian and one of the most important figures of world literature. The extraordinary quality of his lyrical poetry and deep reflection on the human condition makes him a central protagonist in the literary landscape and cultural heritage and international levels.
songs that will be later published under the title “Idilli” and wrote “The infinite”, “On the evening of day of celebration” and “The Moon”.

L’infinito 

A Silvia

 Il sabato del Villaggio

 

 

Alla luna

 

 

 

 

Canto di un pastore errante dell’Asia

RELIGIONE

The Roman Catholicism is the most widespread religion in Italy – 85% of the native population – to follow, communities Protestant, Jewish and Islamic derived from the strong presence of immigrants.
All religions are considered equal before the law, as evidenced by the Italian Constitution. Before the advent of Christianity, the country was paying  and prayed to the gods Romans. Christianity, however, managed to prevail and spread quickly across the peninsula. The Pope of the Catholic Church resides now for thousands of years in Rome and for the precision in the Italian Vatican City.

ART

The Italian art encompasses all works produced in Italy, from ancient times to those recently. In Roman times, Italy was the centre of art and architecture. In the medieval period was the centre of Art Gothic, in the 500 of Renaissance . Subsequently, were born still Mannerism, the Baroque and Rococo. Finally, at the beginning of the twentieth century, was the cradle of Futurism. Traditionally, the Italian artistic capital, is considered Florence, home to artists universal, and for the wealth of its museums and works of art

 

 

The italian art:from Giotto to Modigliani

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 CINEMA

The history of Italian cinema began a few months after the invention of the Lumiere brothers. The first film lasted a few seconds, and there appeared Pope Leo XIII intention to bless towards the camera.
After the Second World War, Italian cinema experienced its best period, which brought high recognition worldwide. Vittorio De Sica, Federico Fellini, Sergio Leone, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Michelangelo Antonioni and Dario Argento are regarded as “teachers” still even in the United States. Among the most famous films of those years of gold, remember the sweet life, The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and Bicycle Thieves.
After 1980, Italian cinema has experienced a period of decline, with some summits in 1994 as the film entitled The postman with Massimo Troisi, and in 1999, the Roberto Benigni film entitled Life is beautiful, that even managed to win three Oscar awards (Best Column Sonora, Best Foreign Film and, above all, Best Actor protagonist, ) on the night of March 24, 1999.

This year at the Cannes Film Festival Italian cinema has had two top awards: the Jury Prize at Il Divo and the Grand Jury Prize at Gomorrah.: These two films that are taken on the reality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MUSIC

The music has always been a characteristic Italian, so that many words related to the musical world are Italian in all languages.
Historically, the Italian musical development began in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and continued during the same time has perhaps reached the highest values worldwide.
Among the great musicians Italians, recalling perhaps the biggest: Giuseppe Verdi.

Verdi. Nabucco. Va pensiero

 Aida

 

 

 

 

 

Contemporary Art 

 
The Venice Biennale is the most important stage for the Italian contemporary art and beyond. Among the latest generation of artists have had international recognition Maurizio Cattelan, Mimmo Paladino, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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